During the Second World War , railroad, aviation, logistical supply and port facilities mushroomed around the Oakland-Alameda estuary, surpassing San Francisco in volume of commerce. In state legislation was enacted to create a S. Feasibility studies for a transbay tube were completed in the early s and submitted to the state for review in January This original report envisioned a mile long system tying then-developed portions of the Bay Area together with the most modern rapid transit system conceived up until that time. This was subsequently shortened to the BART acronym we recognize today. Sonoma, Santa Clara, Solano and Napa Counties were not taken into the original district because planners did not perceive a need for commuter transit service from outlying areas.
Reference: The Ultimate Wood Joint Visual Reference Guide
Just to let you know, if you buy something featured here, Mashable might earn an affiliate commission. Smokey, grilled, and delicious. By Kevin Billings Mashable Deals They can provide that little extra flavor or pop that only wood-smoking and grilling can provide. Unfortunately, that also means wood chip grills can be a little more on the expensive side. Thankfully, Walmart has just the deal if you want the kind of quality barbecue you’d find from some great joints at home.
ends up at least 1 in. (25 mm) into a head joint Weeps: • Open head joint weeps at 24 in. ( mm) o.c. maximum. are preferred Dating to the Colonial era, the brick veneer/wood stud wall with wood stud backing (U) and two 1 hr assemblies (U and U). See Technical Note 16 for additional.
Guest Contributor May 25, Last updated: This is a guest post from Joshua Klein. Then, beginning several decades ago, shop classes began to be removed from secondary curriculums. With the decrease in educational funding, and increasing emphasis on standardized testing, schools began to cull electives, institute stricter graduation requirements, and focus more on college prep academics and the subjects necessary for passing state exams.
This demise of shop classes is quite unfortunate, as they were never solely about preparing students for trade employment. Rather, they taught all men manual skills that they could use and enjoy throughout their lives, whether they became a carpenter or a doctor. They were considered part of becoming a well-rounded man — one able to use both his hands and his mind.
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Dovetails – A Clue for Dating Antiques by Ken Melchert Dovetail joints often hold two boards together in a box or drawer, almost like interlocking the fingertips of your hands. As the dovetail joint evolved through the last one hundred thirty years, it becomes a clue for the age and authenticity of antique furniture. The type of dovetailed joint, especially in drawers, reveals much about furniture construction and dating. With just a little study of these examples, it is easy to spot true hand made construction vs.
The earliest examples are from furniture placed with mummies in Egypt thousands of years ago, and also in the burials of ancient Chinese emperors. For thousands of years, a dovetail joint was created by a skilled cabinetmaker using small, precision saws and wood chisels.
Where the log walls intersect, a notch must be cut to lock the two walls together. The technique of hand crafting and cutting the interlocking corner notches is crucial to .
This is a guest post from Joshua Klein. Then, beginning several decades ago, shop classes began to be removed from secondary curriculums. With the decrease in educational funding, and increasing emphasis on standardized testing, schools began to cull electives, institute stricter graduation requirements, and focus more on college prep academics and the subjects necessary for passing state exams. This demise of shop classes is quite unfortunate, as they were never solely about preparing students for trade employment.
Rather, they taught all men manual skills that they could use and enjoy throughout their lives, whether they became a carpenter or a doctor. They were considered part of becoming a well-rounded man — one able to use both his hands and his mind. Arguably the industrial arts class that is most missed is wood shop. Learning how to work with wood is not only handy, allowing you to make and fix things around the house, but allows you to satisfyingly connect with a long history of craftsmanship.
Woodworking was one of the earliest skills mankind developed; the pre-industrial world was largely made of wood, and for thousands of years, all men had at least a rudimentary understanding of how to shape and manipulate it. Even up until the second half of the last century, tradesmen and professionals alike had the confidence to be able to build wooden shelves, cabinets, or even chairs for their family. Today, in our age of plastic and factories, woodworking has transformed from a common necessary skill into something almost mysterious or awe-inspiring.
None of these skills require expensive, dangerous machinery or exotic tools. They are the foundational skills every woodworker should know. Understand How Wood Works and Behaves Before you put any tool to your lumber, you will need to understand its proper orientation and what direction to plane the board.
Woodworking making wood joints with hand tools PDF Free Download
All about Pine Wood. A little history of Oak Oak or quercus as it is known in Latin is a hardwood with some known species. It has always been a popular wood in The UK, but in recent times it is even more widely used in construction and also as internal fixtures in clubs and gyms etc. For furniture construction oak has become ever more the wood of choice, a trend expanding year on year since the year when China, India and Indonesia substantially increased their export markets.
The flowers of many oak trees are known as catkins and they are produced by oaks when they reach their reproductive age which is typically aged They are triggered by rising temperatures in spring.
Look for wood that is discolored from uneven exposure to light and sun. An old piece of furniture that has stood against a wall for years will show its age with distinct differences in coloring. Check the wood beneath the hardware.
Home Blog A very old drawer, in a very old chest of drawers October 11, By Al Navas A very old drawer, in a very old chest of drawers We are finally home, after 3, miles on the road in two weeks. Following the conference we drove into the Western part of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont, a region commonly referred to as New England, for all readers not in the United States.
And now the job of cataloging photos of our trip begins, to make some order of the conference, the miles, the gorgeous views, and the wonderful people along the way. As I started the job of cataloging the photos, I came across this photo of a drawer in an old cabinet from the s. It is one of 8 drawers in an old cabinet at the Old Woodshed, in Intercourse, PA — I avoided flash, and used only very dim available light: And searching the Internet has netted exactly zero results.
I love the look of this joinery, but I am having trouble deciding whether this is just a variation of a rabetted side on the drawer front. Are the pegs likely to be glued in place? And how is this joint made? I can see myself today making the half-rounds using a Forstner bit on the edge of the drawer front, but how would you make the perfectly-matching contour on the sides?
Was this all made by hand?
An Illustrated History of the Dovetail Joint
I was at first unwilling to accept what I was being told but the narrator seemed so sincere. Some things we need take on faith. It seems woodworkers for centuries have been joining wood at right angles by removing portions of both boards interlocking and keying the two boards permanently together.
Find out about Courtney Wood & Jessica Cunningham Dating, joint family tree & history, ancestors and ancestry. Right here at FameChain.
Skirting boards How to remove paint from wood — 3 ways There are three ways of removing paint from wood: Sanding is best kept for small projects unless you want to hire an industrial sander to remove paint and varnish from your floor. A quick word about sandpaper and wire wool, both of which can cause damage to wood unless you take it easy… When you sand wood you take the surface off, and you need to do it as evenly as possible without rubbing it thin in places or creating gouges.
Power tools help because their design forces you to apply even pressure. Bear in mind, also, that a hot air gun can only be used as a paint remover, not a varnish remover as varnishes tend to go very gooey, almost glue-like, when heated. Chemical stripping is the best method for stripping carved wood with hard-to-reach, intricate areas, but in reality you will probably use a combination of mechanical and chemical methods for your project, especially if you have layer-upon-layer of old paint to take off.
Chemical paint removers deliver the best results, remove varnishes and paints faster than sanding, and tend to be the least harsh. Care needs to be taken when using chemical strippers, however, as these present their own care and safety issues. As Kirsty Allsop says on the Channel 4 Homes website: Protect the floor with dust sheets or thick newspaper.
To get a chemical stripper into nooks and crannies on intricate woodwork, use wire wool. On the downside, you tend to use more of it, so it can end up more expensive than a caustic stripper.
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American Furniture Many vintage furniture buyers opt for quality reproductions that are more affordable, and either option is fine providing that you research your subject well when identifying antique furniture. There is no exact science where antique furniture is concerned; you simply make an educated decision based on what is most important to you. Researching and Identifying Antique Furniture Becoming knowledgeable about antique furniture takes research, even if you are focusing on only one aspect of this wide-ranging subject.
Many collectors prefer particular eras, styles, and makers, while others have more eclectic tastes. Get an expert opinion: A trained eye is more likely to find an undervalued treasure or a clever fake than a novice ever would.
Examples of mortise and tenon joints can be found in woodworking projects that are centuries old. The premise of a mortise and tenon joint is simple: a hole in one board, known as a mortise, is cut to accommodate a pin on another board, called a tenon. whereby two or more rounded sticks of wood, known as dowels, are inserted into.
Types[ edit ] A mortise is a cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon. There are several kinds of mortise: Stub mortise a shallow mortise, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber; also a mortise that does not go through the workpiece as opposed to a “through mortise”. Through mortise Wedged half- dovetail a mortise in which the back is wider, or taller, than the front, or opening.
The space for the wedge initially leaves room to insert the tenon. The wedge, after the tenon is engaged, prevents its withdrawal. Through-wedged half-dovetail a wedged half-dovetail mortise that passes entirely through the piece. A tenon is a projection on the end of a timber for insertion into a mortise. Usually the tenon is taller than it is wide.